THE PHILIPPINES UNDER IMPERIAL SPAIN
- Spain and Portugal rivaled in discovering the rest of the world propelled by “God, gold, and glory” and technology.
- Portugal started the maritime discoveries in Asia via the southeastern route making breakthroughs in the Indian Ocean.
- Spain seconded sailing via the southwestern route that landed in the West Indies in 1492 and rediscovered the Philippines in 1521.
- The main purpose of the voyages is to search for different spices.
The Lusitanian-Hispanic Rivalry in Maritime Discoveries
- Portugal was the first country to use innovation in seamanship and boatbuilding with the establishment by Henry “the Navigator” of the first navigational school in the globe at Sagres Point
- Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo) made a landfall in Guanahani and the coast of Cuba in October 1492.
- King John (Joao) of Portugal protested on the ground that it was an incursion by Spain of his sphere of influence.
- Pope Alexander VI Issued in May 1493, the Inter caetera and the Eximiae Devotionis, giving Spain the right over any lands newly-discovered by Columbus.
- The spheres of influence of the two superpowers of the fifteenth century thus, were finally fixed by an imaginary line drawn from the north and south poles a hundred leagues from Spain. The lands lying to
the east of the line were reserved for Portugal, and those territories to the west to Spain.
- In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed which partitioned the non-Christian world into two spheres of influence.
The Magellan Expedition
Ferdinand Magellan (Fernao de Magalhaes), a Portuguese serving the Spanish royalty, saw action for his country in the East, first in India with Alfonso de Almeida in 1505.
- Magellan had sailed from San Lucar, Spain, in 1519, on
board five very antiquated ships with a crew of 235 men.
- Magellan finally reached the Philippines on March 17,
- Victoria, completed the voyage back to Spain in 1522,
arriving in Seville, led by Juan Sebastian del Cano.
Achievements of the Magellan Expedition
- It was through this trip that the Europeans first
learned of the existence of the Philippines.
- It also proved that the earth was round
- It established the vastness of the Pacific Ocean.
- It proved that the East Indies could be reached by
crossing the Pacific.
- It showed that the Americans was really a land mass
entirely separate from Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan – the first man to have circum-navigated the world in two separate voyages
Juan Sebastian del Cano – the first man to have circum-navigated the world in one complete voyage
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi – Adelantado de Filipinas; first Spanish Governor-general of the Philippines